Corporate Governance Vocabulary with Chinese Translations
In the interest of helping English-speaking teachers or businesspersons trying to use Chinese, I have also included the Chinese translations my students provided for the words. While I cannot attest to the validity of the Chinese terms (I highly recommend you verify these terms in case you need to use them in an official capacity), perhaps they can help in general conversation. :) If you find corrections, please let me know in the comments!
I'll be updating the vocabulary page regularly over the next 15 weeks or so with new words (about 20-30 a week). It takes a lot of time to format these :)
I'd love to know if this resources helps anyone out and how you use the vocabulary terms in your work!
v. = Verb
n. = Noun
adj. = Adjective
adv. = Adverb
(c) All Rights Reserved. You are welcome to use this material. However, if you do end up using these definitions in your material (educational, informational, or professional), please include either a link to this webpage or the following reference: Blessing, Olivia. "Corporate Governance Vocabulary." DeceptivelyBlonde.com. This is for two reasons: 1) I'd like to share the resource with others. 2) I created these definitions myself. Thanks!
Advise (提供意见 - Tígōng Yìjiàn). (v.)
Offer someone suggestions about what to do (e.g. who to hire, what rules to make, where to invest, etc.). Alternatives include: Advisory (adj.), Adviser (n.), Advice (n.).
Agency (机构 - Jīgòu) (n./adj.)
A place or system where a person or business offers services for and gives professional advice to a client. (e.g. Real Estate Agency, where the agent assists the client with purchasing a home).
Agent (代理人 - Dàilǐ Rén) (n.)
An individual selected or hired to do to the work for someone else or to represent someone else.
Amend (修改 - Xiūgǎi) (v.)
Make changes to something.
To select a person or group of people for specific work or for an official job . 委任 –Wěi rèn
To select a specific time or date for an event. 任命 - Rèn mìng
Articles (文章 - Wénzhāng) (n.)
A written essay or paper discussing or talking about a specific topic. Common examples are Journal Articles, Newspaper Articles, Magazine Articles.
Articles of Incorporation (公司章程 - Gōngsī zhāngchéng) (n.)
Sample from State of California, USA This company charter is a set of documents that includes all the relevant facts for describing/identifying the corporation and officially creates the company. Information within usually includes name, purpose, address, title and addresses of all officers, name of official representative, information regarding stock, and other significant details required to officially create the company. Unlike some countries, the US Government requires that these Articles be filed with them as part of the Incorporation process. In foreign countries, they often call these Articles a different name such as "Company Charter" or a specific form title (i.e. Form 10A).
Assets (资产 - Zīchǎn) (n.)
Anything valuable or of worth that belongs to the company. Found on the Balance Sheet.
Audit (审计 - Shěnjì) (n./v.)
The official examination of the corporations financial accounts and management to ensure good behavior. Good corporations usually arrange to have this done by independent committees or external organizations.
Balance of Power (均势 - Jūnshì / 权力平衡 - Quánlì Pínghéng) (n.)
The issue of whether power or authority is equally shared among the people so that no one person or group is stronger than the others
Business Practices (商业惯例 - Shāngyè guànlì) (n.)
The usual methods, procedures, systems, traditions, and rules used by a company in accomplishing its goals.
Benefit (得益 - Dé yì) (v.)
To get or receive something good (an advantage or profit) from something. (e.g. one benefit to working for my company is a good salary).
Board of Directors (董事会 - Dǒngshìhuì) (n.)
A group of people who work inbetween the Executive Staff and Shareholders to make many of the major rules and decisions of the company.
Business (交易-Jiāoyì; 商业-Shāngyè) (n.)
The process of obtaining the resources you need via trade or an exchange.
The Chief Operations Officer is a senior executive responsible for the day-to-day operation or actions of the company
Code(s) (法典 - Fǎdiǎn) (n.)
A set of laws and regulations dealing with a certain topic. E.g. Uniform Commercial Code, Bylaws (the business code), Employee Code, Dress Code.
Committee (委员会 - Wěiyuánhuì) (n.)
A group of people appointed to do something. In business it is usually a managerial or advisory role.
Conflict (冲突 - Chōngtú) (n.)
A disagreement or argument between two people or groups. The interests of one group is not the same as the other group, and so they fight.
Conflict of Interest (利益冲突 - Lìyì chōngtú) (n.)
A problem where someone can use their power wrongfully to benefit themselves to the detriment or loss of those who entrusted them with that power.
Contract (合同- Hétóng) (n.)
A written or spoken promise for two people or parties to do something. In corporations, they usually involve promises to act or behave a certain way in business or trade.
Contribute (贡献 - Gòngxiàn) (v.)
To give something (time, money, goods, effort, thoughts, ideas) as part of helping a group accomplish something. (Example - My contribution to the project was the Powerpoint I did).
Controls (管制- Guǎnzhì) (n.)
Rules or Restrictions use to limit or regulate something.
See Chief Operations Officer
Copyright (版权 - Bǎnquán; 著作权 - zhùzuòquán) (n.)
The exclusive right to use something (no one else can use or copy it) given to the creator by law.
Corporate Structure (公司结构 - Gōngsī Jiégòu) (n.)
The system or plan for organizing a corporation's groups, committees, and people.
Corporation (公司 - Gōngsī) (n.)
A special types of company where 1) it is treated like an individual by the law-with its own rights and obligations; and 2) the employees are protected from most liability because the company is held legally liable rather than the individual owners or employees.
An action that accomplishes all the required work at the lowest possible cost.
Decide (决定 - Juédìng) (v.)
To make a conclusion or final choice about something.
Decision (决议 - Juéyì) (n.)
A conclusion or final choice about something.
Delegate (代表 - Dàibiǎo) (n | v.)
A person authorized or approved to represent or do the work for someone else. Or the act of authorizing or approving someone else to represent or do one's work.
Director (董事 - Dǒngshì) (n.)
Member of the Board of Directors which monitors the Executive Staff, works with the Shareholders, and makes some of the most significant decisions about the company's purpose, values, ethics, goals, major activities, and future.
Duration (持续的时间 - Chíxù de shíjiān; 期间 - Qíjiān) (n.)
The length of time during which something happens.
Executive (高管 - Gāo Guǎn) (n.)
The senior manager or officer in charge of a specific area of the company who is responsible for making and implementing the significant day-to-day decisions.
Fee (费用 - Fèiyòng) (n.)
Money payed to professionals, companies, or the government.
Financial ( 财 – Cái / 金融 - Jīn róng) (adj.)
Connected to or associated with money or finances.
Fiscal (财政 - Cái Zhèng) (adj)
Connected to or associated with money or finances (usually in terms of the cash flow, assets, and liabilities of a company).
Function (功能 - Gōngnéng) (n.)
The reason something exists; A person or object's purpose or job.
General rules or regulations about how to act or do things. Often used interchangeably with “rules”
Incorporation (创建公司通过服从法律要求- Chuàngjiàn gōngsī tōngguò fúcóng fǎlǜ yāoqiú *Incorporation does not have a lateral translation. Instead, they chose this phrase meaning "Create a legal company by obeying the legal requirements") (n.)
The process or act of creating a legal corporation by following each of the steps required by the Government. These steps usually include 1) Structuring the Company, 2) Creating the Necessary Paperwork, Filing the Forms, Paying all the Required Fees, and Obtaining the Requisite Certifications and Licenses.
Used to describe a company that has been formed as a legal corporation with all the special rights and obligations of that type of business. Often part of the Company name, abbreviated or shortened to "Inc." ~ No Chinese Translation
Bringing all the different pieces and parts together into a whole, finished product. ~ 混合 (Hùnhé)
Investor (投资者 - Tóuzī zhě) (n.)
The person who loans money, assets, or resources to the business, usually in return for more money.
Lawful (法定的 - Fǎdìng de) (adj.)
Something that obeys or is allowed by the law. Legal
Legal System (法律体系 - Fǎlǜ tǐxì) (n.)
The system a country or organization uses to create, interpret, and enforce its rules. Enforce means make people obey.
Liabilities (负债 - Fùzhài) (n.)
All debts or financial obligations a company owes . Found on the Balance Sheet.
Manager (经理 - Jīnglǐ) (n.)
The person responsible for controlling, leading, monitoring, and disciplining a certain group of people or the actions of a certain part of the company.
Market (市场 - Shìchǎng) (n.)
A location where individuals and companies come together for the purpose of doing trade and business.
Member (会员 - Huìyuán) (n.)
Someone who has fulfilled all the requirements and been accepted into the group. (Example - "I am a member of the Wēixìn Group for my class")
Something found in common between two or more people. Often use in terms of shared opinions or feelings.
Nominate (v.) / Nomination (n.) (提名 - Tímíng)
The official recommendation or suggestion that someone deserves a specific job.
Officer (官 - Guān) (n.)
A person holding a position of authority
Owner (所有者 - Suǒyǒu zhě) (n.)
A person who has possession of all the rights to use, claim, and/or profit from something.
Ownership (所有权 - Suǒyǒuquán) (n. / adj.)
Possessing or having all the rights to use, claim, and/or profit from something.
Performance (绩效 - Jīxiào) (n.)
The way someone does their work. When reviewed by others, performance is usually judged by its effectiveness and efficiency. (Example - Your performance was very good; you did the job quickly and correctly)
Principal (首长 - Shǒuzhǎng) (n.)
The most important or senior person. The owner / client / employer. The person who hires other people to be their agents or delegates.
Purpose (目的 - Mùdì) (n.)
The reason why something is done or why something exists. The Function.
Registered (注册 - Zhùcè) (adj.)
Added to the official government record or listing of corporations.
Relationship (关系 - Guānxì) (n.)
The correlation or link tying two people or things together.
Relevant (相应 - Xiāng yìng) (adj.)
Directly linked to or important to the issue being considered (Example - Whether or not the product test is successful is relevant to whether we sell it this year or not).
Remuneration (报酬 - Bàochóu) (n.)
The payment or reward a person gets for doing their job.
Report (汇报 - Huìbào) (n.)
A detailed account or explanation (written or spoken) about the person, group, or company's activities, work, situation, research, etc
Report (报告 - Bàogào) (v.)
To give the report to the audience.
Representative (代表 - Dàibiǎo) (n.)
A person chosen to stand for and speak on behalf of a group
Review (回顾 - Huígù) (v.)
To examine or look over something to make sure it is correct, complete, adequate, or that you understand it.
Risk (风险 - Fēngxiǎn) (n.)
Something that puts important or valuable items in danger of being destroyed, damaged, or lost.
Secretary (秘书 - Mìshū) (n.)
The person chosen to handle most communication, record-keeping, managing the calendar, and carrying out other daily tasks.
Self-Interest (私心 - Sīxīn) (n.)
Caring about oneself; thinking about one's own benefits or costs. The desire to get benefits or advantages for oneself.
Share(s) (股 - Gǔ) (n.)
When part of a company’s ownership is divided into equal portions, each portion is called a share. Each share gives the owner part of the ownership, profits, and a vote. A piece of the Stock.
Shareholder (股东 - Gǔdōng) (n.)
A person or company who owns a piece or share of the company. There can be Majority Shareholders and Minority Shareholders.
Signature (签名 - Qiānmíng) (n.)
A person’s name written in a special unique way so that the name can be a form of identification or a tool for authorization.
Stakeholder (利益相关者 - Lìyì xiāngguān zhě) (n.)
Any person or organization who has an interest in something. This means they will somehow benefit or suffer because of that thing. In business, stakeholders are the people or organizations that benefit or suffer depending on the behavior of the business. Examples include owners, employees, suppliers, society, the government, partners, etc.
Stewardship (*hard to translate, best one they could find = 管理工作 - Guǎnlǐ gōngzuò) (n.)
Properly managing, controlling, and using something.
Stock (股票 - Gǔpiào) (n.)
1. The company as a whole including all its votes, profit, and ownership - divided and sold in shares. 2. The money the company gets by selling shares.
Stock Certificate (股权证书 - Gǔquán zhèngshū) (n.)
An official document proving that a person or company owns a certain amount of company stock
Strategy (战略 - Zhànlüè) (n.)
A plan or method of accomplishing something.
Theory (学说 - Xuéshuō) (n.)
An answer to a problem or an explanation about how something works.
Trademark (商标 - Shāngbiāo) (n.)
A Trademark is any arrangement of words or images intended to set the products of one company apart so people can recognize the produce by seeing those words or images.
Transaction (交易 - Jiāoyì) (n.)
The exchange or trade of one thing for something else. Each completed trade is one transaction.
Treasurer (财务主管 - Cáiwù zhǔguǎn) (n.)
A person selected to manage the financial matters of a group or company. Their main job is to advise the Board and/or Executive Staff about financial policies, finding investors and moneys to finance the company, managing company investments, and handing future financial risks.
Voluntary (自愿地做的工作 - Zìyuàn de zuò de gōngzuò) (adj. | adv.)